\datethis
\input epsf
\let\possiblyflakyepsfbox=\epsfbox
\def\epsfbox#1{\hbox{\possiblyflakyepsfbox{#1}}}
\def\dts{\mathinner{\ldotp\ldotp}}
\let\from=\gets
\def\bit#1{\\{bit}[#1]}
\def\losub#1{^{\vphantom\prime}_{#1}} % for contexts like $x'_n+x\losub n$
@*Introduction. The purpose of this program is to implement a pretty
algorithm that has a very pleasant theory. But I apologize
at the outset that the algorithm seems to be rather subtle, and
I have not been able to think of any way to explain it to dummies.
Readers who like discrete mathematics and computer science are
encouraged to persevere nonetheless.
An overview of the relevant theory appears in a paper called ``Deconstructing
coroutines,'' by D.~E. Knuth and F.~Ruskey, but this program tries to be
self-contained. Earlier versions of the ideas were embedded in now-obsolete
programs called {\mc KODA-RUSKEY} and {\mc LI-RUSKEY}, written in June, 2001.
@c
#include
@@;
@@;
int main (int argc,char*argv[])
{
@;
@;
@;
@;
return 0;
}
@ Given a digraph that is {\it totally acyclic}, in the sense that it has
no cycles when we ignore the arc directions, we want to find all ways to
label its vertices with 0s and 1s in such a way that
$x\to y$ implies $\bit x\le\bit y$.
Moreover, we want to list all such labelings as a Gray path,
changing only one bit at a time. The algorithm below does this, with
an extra proviso: Given a designated ``root'' vertex~$v$, $\bit v$
begins at 0 and changes exactly once.
For brevity, a totally acyclic digraph is called a {\it tad}, and a
connected tad is called a {\it spider}.
The simple three-vertex spider with $x\to y\from z$ has only five such
labelings, and they form a Gray path in essentially only one way,
namely $(000,010,011,111,110)$. This example shows that we cannot require
the Gray path to end at a convenient prespecified labeling like $11\ldots1$;
and the dual graph, obtained by reversing all the arrows and complementing
all the bits, shows that we can't require the path to start at $00\ldots0$.
[Generalizations of this example, in which the vertices are
$\{x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n\}$ and each arc is either $x_{k-1}\to x_k$ or
$x_{k-1}\from x_k$, have solutions related to continued fractions.
Interested readers will enjoy working out the details.]
It is convenient to describe a tad by using a variant
of right-Polish notation, where a dot means ``put a new node on the stack''
and where a \.+ or \.- sign means ``draw an arc $x\from y$ (\.+) or
$x\to y$ (\.-) and remove $y$ from the stack,'' if $x$ and~$y$ are the
top stack elements. For example, a digraph with four vertices and no arcs is
represented by `\.{....}'; the digraph $1\to2\from3$ is `\.{...+-}', and
$2\to1\from 3$ is `\.{..+.+}', numbering the dots from left to right. This
numbering corresponds to {\it preorder\/} of the forest that is obtained if we
ignore arc directions.
The Polish notation implicitly specifies a hierarchical order, if the
\.+ and \.- operations make $y$ a child of~$x$. Using this tree structure,
each node of the digraph defines a subtree, and that subtree is a spider.
The Gray path we
construct is obtained by judiciously combining the Gray paths obtained
from the spiders.
@ In the following program, the parent of node $k$ is |par[k]|, and the
arc between $k$ and its parent goes toward |par[k]| if |sign[k]=1|,
toward~$k$ if |sign[k]=0|.
The spider corresponding to~$k$ consists of nodes $k$ through
|scope[k]|, inclusive. The Gray path corresponding to this spider
will be called $G_k$.
While we build the data structures, we might as well compute also |rchild[k]|
and |lsib[k]|, the rightmost child and left sibling of node~|k|. Then we
have a triply linked tree.
@d maxn 100 /* limit on number of vertices */
@d abort(f,d,n)@+ {@+fprintf(stderr,f,d);@+exit(-n);@+}
@=
{
register char *c;
if (argc<2 || argc>3 || (argc==3 && sscanf(argv[2],"%d",&verbose)!=1))
abort("Usage: %s graphspecification [verbosity]\n",argv[0],1);
for (c=argv[1], j=n=0; *c; c++) switch (*c) {
case '.':@+ if (n==maxn-1)
abort("Sorry, I can only handle %d vertices!\n",maxn-1,2);
stack[j++]=++n;@+ break;
case '+': case '-':@+ if (j<2)
abort("Parsing error: `%s' should start with `.'!\n",c,3);
j--, k=stack[j], l=stack[j-1];
sign[k]=(*c=='+'? 1: 0);
par[k]=l, lsib[k]=rchild[l], rchild[l]=k;
scope[k]=n;
break;
default: abort("Parsing error: `%s' should start with `.' or `+' or `-'!\n",
c,4);
}
scope[0]=n, sign[0]=1, rchild[0]=stack[--j];
for (k=n; j>=0; j--) {
l=stack[j], scope[l]=k, k=l-1;
if (j>0) lsib[l]=stack[j-1];
}
}
@ @=
int par[maxn]; /* the parent of $k$ */
int sign[maxn]; /* 0 if $|par|[k]\to k$,\quad 1 if $|par|[k]\from k$ */
int scope[maxn]; /* rightmost element of the spider $k$ */
int stack[maxn]; /* vertices whose |scope| is not yet set */
int rchild[maxn], lsib[maxn]; /* tree links for traversal */
int verbose; /* controls the amount of output */
@ @=
register int j,k,l=0; /* heavily-used miscellaneous indices */
int n; /* size of the input graph */
@ Consider the example spider
$$\epsfbox{deco.5}$$
in which all arcs are directed upward; it could be written
\.{....+-.--..+-..-+} in Polish notation. Vertex~1 is the root.
A nonroot vertex~$k$ is
called {\it positive\/} if $|par|[k]\to k$ and {\it negative\/}
if $|par|[k]\from k$;
thus $\{2,3,5,6,9\}$ are positive in this example, and $\{4,7,8\}$ are
negative.
We write $j\to^* k$ if there is a directed path from $j$ to $k$.
Removing all vertices $j$ such that $j\to^* k$ disconnects spider~$k$
into a number of pieces having positive roots; in our example, removing
$\{1,8\}$ leaves three components rooted at $\{2,6,9\}$. We call these roots
the set of {\it positive vertices near\/}~$k$, and denote that set by~$U_k$.
Similarly, the {\it negative vertices near\/}~$k$ are obtained when we remove
all $j$ such that $k\to^* j$; the set of resulting roots, denoted by~$V_k$,
is $\{4,7,8\}$ in our example.
Why are the sets $U_k$ and $V_k$ so important? Because
the labelings of the $k$th spider for which $\bit k=0$ are
precisely those that we obtain by setting $\bit j=0$ for all $j\to^* k$
and then labeling each spider $u$ for $u\in U_k$.
Similarly, all labelings for which $\bit k=1$ are obtained by
setting $\bit j=1$ for all $k\to^* j$ and labeling each spider
$v$ for $v\in V_k$.
Thus if $n_k$ denotes the number of labelings of spider~$k$,
we have $n_k=\prod_{u\in U_k}n_u\,+\,\prod_{v\in V_k}n_v$.
\smallskip
Every positive child of $k$ appears in $U_k$, and every negative
child appears in $V_k$. These are called the {\it principal\/}
elements of~$U_k$ and~$V_k$. Every nonprincipal member of~$U_k$ is a member
of $U_v$ for some unique principal vertex~$v\in V_k$. Similarly, every
nonprincipal member of~$V_k$ is a member of $V_u$ for some unique
principal vertex $u\in U_k$. For example, 9~is a nonprincipal member of~$U_1$
and it also belongs to~$U_8$; 4~is a nonprincipal member of~$V_1$ and it
also belongs to~$V_2$.
If $k$ is a root of the given digraph, we say that $k$'s parent is~0.
This dummy vertex 0 is assumed to have arcs to all such~$k$, and it follows
that $U_0$ is the collection of those root vertices; the total number
of labelings is therefore $\prod_{u\in U_0}n_u$.
According to this convention, the root vertices
are considered to be positive. We also regard 0 as negative.
For example, the sample spider above has the following characteristics:
$$\vbox{\halign{$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#+{}$&$#\hfil={}$&\hfil#\cr
k&|sign|[k]&|scope|[k]&|par|[k]&|rchild|[k]&|lsib|[k]&U_k&V_k&
\multispan3{\hfil$n_k$\hfil}\cr
\noalign{\vskip2pt}
0&1&9&0&1& &\{1\}&\{4,7,8\}\cr
1&0&9&0&8&0&\{2,6,9\}&\{4,7,8\}&48&12&60\cr
2&0&5&1&5&0&\{3,5\}&\{4\}&6&2&8\cr
3&0&4&2&4&0&\emptyset&\{4\}&1&2&3\cr
4&1&4&3&0&0&\emptyset&\emptyset&1&1&2\cr
5&0&5&2&0&3&\emptyset&\emptyset&1&1&2\cr
6&0&7&1&7&2&\emptyset&\{7\}&1&2&3\cr
7&1&7&6&0&0&\emptyset&\emptyset&1&1&2\cr
8&1&9&1&9&6&\{9\}&\emptyset&2&1&3\cr
9&0&9&8&0&0&\emptyset&\emptyset&1&1&2\cr}}$$
@ We don't want to compute the sets $U_1$, \dots, $U_n$ explicitly,
because the total number of elements $\vert U_1\vert+\cdots+\vert U_n\vert$
can be $\Omega(n^2)$ in cases like $\..^{n/2}(\.{.+})^{n/2}\.+^{n/2-1}$.
But luckily for us, there is a nice way to represent all of those sets
implicitly, computing the representation in linear time.
Suppose $u$ is a positive vertex, not a root, so that $u\from v_1$ where
$v_1$ is $u$'s parent and $v_1\ne0$. If $v_1$ is negative, let $v_2$ be the
parent of $v_1$, and continue until reaching a positive vertex~$v_j$.
We call $v_j$ the {\it positive progenitor\/} of $v_1$; it is also
the positive progenitor of $v_2$, \dots,~$v_{j-1}$, and itself.
By definition, $u\in U_k$ if and only if $k\in\{v_1,\ldots,v_j\}$.
It follows that $U_k=U_{k'}\cap\bigl[k\dts|scope|[k]\bigr]$ when $k'$ is
the positive progenitor of~$k$.
We can therefore represent all the sets $U_k$ by linking their elements
together explicitly whenever $k$ is a positive vertex; such sets
$U_k$ are disjoint. Then if we compute |umax[k]| for {\it every\/}
vertex~$k$, namely the index of the largest element of $U_k$, the set $U_k$
will consist of |umax[k]|, |prev[umax[k]]|, |prev[prev[umax[k]]]|, etc.,
proceeding until reaching an element less than~$k$.
One pass through the forest in preorder suffices to compute the |prev| values.
A second pass in reverse postorder suffices to compute each |umax|,
because postorder traverses nodes in order of their scopes.
A similar idea works, of course, for $V_1$, \dots, $V_n$, using
{\it negative\/} progenitors.
@=
for (j=1;j<=n;j++) {
k=par[j];
if (sign[j]==0) {
ppro[j]=j, npro[j]=npro[k];
if (k) prev[j]=umax[ppro[k]], umax[ppro[k]]=j;
else prev[j]=lsib[j]; /* special case when $j$ is a root */
}@+else {
npro[j]=j, ppro[j]=ppro[k];
prev[j]=vmax[npro[k]], vmax[npro[k]]=j;
}
}
@;
@ Tree traversal is great fun, when it works.
@=
lsib[0]=-1; /* sentinel */
ptr[0]=vmax[0];
umax[0]=rchild[0];
for (j=rchild[0];;) {
if (sign[j]==0) {
ptr[j]=umax[j]; /* this pointer will run through $U_j$ */
k=npro[j], l=ptr[k];
while (l>scope[j]) l=prev[l];
ptr[k]=l;
if (l>j) vmax[j]=l;
}@+else {
ptr[j]=vmax[j]; /* this pointer will run through $V_j$ */
k=ppro[j], l=ptr[k];
while (l>scope[j]) l=prev[l];
ptr[k]=l;
if (l>j) umax[j]=l;
}
if (rchild[j]) j=rchild[j]; /* now we move to the next node */
else {
while (!lsib[j]) j=par[j];
j=lsib[j];
if (j<0) break;
}
}
@ The sample spider leads, for example, to the following values:
$$\vbox{\halign{$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\quad&
$\hfil#\hfil$\cr
k&|ppro|[k]&|npro|[k]&|prev|[k]&|umax|[k]&|vmax|[k]\cr
\noalign{\vskip2pt}
0&0&0&0&1&8\cr
1&1&0&0&9&8\cr
2&2&0&0&5&4\cr
3&3&0&0&0&4\cr
4&3&4&0&0&0\cr
5&5&0&3&0&0\cr
6&6&0&2&0&7\cr
7&6&7&4&0&0\cr
8&1&8&7&9&0\cr
9&9&8&6&0&0\cr}}$$
@=
int ppro[maxn], npro[maxn]; /* progenitors */
int prev[maxn]; /* previous element in the same progenitorial list */
int ptr[maxn]; /* current element in such a list */
int umax[maxn], vmax[maxn]; /* rightmost elements in $U_k$, $V_k$ */
@ Aha! We can begin to see how to get the desired Gray path. The well-known
reflected Gray code for mixed-radix number systems tells us how to obtain a
path $P_k$ of length $\prod_{u\in U_k}n_u$ for the labelings of
spider~$k$ with $\bit k=0$, as
well as a path $Q_k$ of length $\prod_{v\in V_k}n_v$ for the labelings with
$\bit k=1$. All we have to do is figure out a way to end $P_k$ with
a labeling that differs only in $\bit k$ from the starting point of $Q_k$;
then we can let $G_k$ be `$P_k, Q_k$'. And indeed, such a labeling
is fairly obvious: It consists of the last labeling of spider~$u$ for
each positive child $u$ of~$k$, and the first labeling of spider~$v$ for
each negative child~$v$.
If $j\in U_k$, the reflected code in $P_k$ involves traversing $G_j$
a total of
$$\delta_{jk}=
\prod_{\scriptstyle u=
for (k=0;k<=n;k++) ueven[k]=veven[k]=umin[k]=vmin[k]=maxn;
for (j=n;j>0;j--) {
k=ppro[j];
if (umin[k]<=scope[j]) umin[j]=umin[k];
if (ueven[k]<=scope[j]) ueven[j]=ueven[k];
k=npro[j];
if (vmin[k]<=scope[j]) vmin[j]=vmin[k];
if (veven[k]<=scope[j]) veven[j]=veven[k];
l=(ueven[j]=
for (k=n;k>0;k--) {
l=par[k];
if (k==umax[l]) umaxbit[l]=1;
else {
j=umax[k];
if (j && umax[l]==j) {
if (ueven[k]=
int umin[maxn], vmin[maxn]; /* the smallest guys in $U_k$, $V_k$ */
int ueven[maxn], veven[maxn]; /* the smallest even guys in $U_k$, $V_k$ */
int umaxbit[maxn], vmaxbit[maxn]; /* significant transition bits */
int bit[maxn]; /* the current labeling */
@ A somewhat subtle point arises here, and it provides an important
simplification: Suppose $j$ is a negative child of~$k$,
and $|ueven|[k]\ge j$. Then the initial bits of spider~$j$ in the sequence
for spider~$k$ are the same as the transition bits of spider~$j$.
The reason is that $\delta_{ij}+\delta_{ik}$ is even for all
$i\in U_j$.
Using this principle, we can write recursive procedures so that |setfirst(0)|
computes the very first setting the bit table, in $O(n)$ steps.
(This bound on the running time comes from the fact that each procedure sets
the bits of a subspider using a number of steps bounded by a constant times the
number of bits being set. Formally, if $T_n\le
a+(b+T_{n_1})+\cdots+(b+T_{n_t})$ where $n_1+\cdots+n_t=n-1$, then
it follows by induction that $T_n\le(a+b)n-b$.)
The first labeling of our example spider uses the first labeling
of subspider~2, the last labeling of subspider~6, and the first labeling
of subspider~8, so it is
$|bit|[1]\ldots|bit|[9]=000001100$.
Recursion is lots of fun too. Why do I sometimes prefer traversal?
@=
void setlast(register int k); /* see below */
void setmid(register int k,int b); /* ditto */
void setfirst(register int k)
{
register int j;
bit[k]=0;
for (j=rchild[k];j;j=lsib[j])
if (sign[j]==0) {
if (ueven[k]>=j) setfirst(j); /* $\delta_{jk}$ is odd */
else setlast(j);
}@+else if (ueven[k]>=j) setmid(j,0); /* by the subtle point */
else setfirst(j); /* $\delta_{ik}$ is even for all $i\in U_j$ */
}
void setlast(register int k)
{
register int j;
bit[k]=1;
for (j=rchild[k];j;j=lsib[j])
if (sign[j]==1) {
if (veven[k]>=j) setlast(j); /* $\delta_{jk}$ is odd */
else setfirst(j);
}@+else if (veven[k]>=j) setmid(j,1); /* by the subtle point */
else setlast(j); /* $\delta_{ik}$ is even for all $i\in V_j$ */
}
void setmid(register int k, int b)
{
register int j;
bit[k]=b;
for (j=rchild[k];j;j=lsib[j])
if (sign[j]==0) setlast(j);@+else setfirst(j);
}
@* The active list. Reflected Gray code is nicely generated by a process
based on a list of elements that are alternately active and passive.
(See, for example, Algorithm 7.2.1.1L in {\sl The Art of Computer
Programming}.) A slight generalization of that notion works admirably for the
problem faced here: We maintain a so-called {\it active list\/} $L$, whose
elements are alternately awake and asleep. Elements are occasionally inserted
into~$L$ and/or deleted from~$L$ according to the following protocol:
\smallskip
\itemitem{1)} Find the largest node $k\in L$ that is awake, and wake up
all elements of $L$ that exceed~$k$.
\itemitem{2)} If |bit[k]=0|, set $|bit|[k]\gets1$ and
$L\gets(L\setminus U'_k)\cup V'_k$; otherwise set $|bit|[k]\gets0$ and
$L\gets(L\setminus V'_k)\cup U'_k$. Here $U'_k$ and $V'_k$ denote the
{\it principal elements\/} of $U_k$ and $V_k$, namely the positive
and negative children of~$k$.
\itemitem{3)} Put $k$ to sleep.
\smallskip\noindent
The process stops when all elements of $L$ are asleep in step 1. In such a
case, waking them up and repeating the process will run through the
bit labelings again, but in reverse order.
The elements of $L$ are the positive vertices $k$ for which |bit[par[k]]=0|
and the negative vertices $k$ for which |bit[par[k]]=1|.
For example, the initial active list for the example spider
is $L=\{1,2,3,5,6,7,9\}$. All elements are awake at the beginning.
\def\p#1{\overline#1}
We can conveniently represent $L$ as a list of elements $k$, with
subscripts to indicate the current setting of |bit[k]|. Then $k_0$ is
always followed in the list by sublists for the spiders of~$U_k$, and
$k_1$ is always followed by sublists for the spiders of~$V_k$. With
these conventions, the initial active list is
$$1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad 5_0\quad 6_1\quad 7_1\quad 9_0\,.$$
Since $9_0$ is awake, we complement |bit[9]|, and $L$ becomes
$$1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad 5_0\quad 6_1\quad 7_1\quad \p9_1\,.$$
The bar over 9 indicates that this node is now asleep.
The next step complements |bit[7]| and wakes up 9; thus the first
few steps take place as follows:
$$\vbox{\halign{$#\hfil$&
\quad\smash{\lower.5\baselineskip\hbox{$\cdots$ complement $\bit#$\hfil}}\cr
1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad 5_0\quad 6_1\quad 7_1\quad 9_0&9\cr
1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad 5_0\quad 6_1\quad 7_1\quad \p9_1&7\cr
1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad 5_0\quad 6_1\quad \p7_0\quad 9_1&9\cr
1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad 5_0\quad 6_1\quad \p7_0\quad \p9_0&6\cr
1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad 5_0\quad \p6_0\quad 9_0&9\cr
1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad 5_0\quad \p6_0\quad \p9_1&5\cr
1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad \p5_1\quad 6_0\quad 9_1&9\cr
1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad \p5_1\quad 6_0\quad \p9_0&6\cr
1_0\quad 2_0\quad 3_0\quad \p5_1\quad \p6_1\quad 7_0\quad 9_0\cr}}$$
Notice that 7 disappears from $L$ when |bit[6]| becomes 0, but it
comes back again when |bit[6]| reverts to~1. Soon |bit[3]| will
change to~1, and $4_0$ will enter the fray.
The most dramatic change will occur after the first $n_2n_6n_9=48$ labelings,
when |bit[1]| changes:
$$\vbox{\halign{$#\hfil$&
\quad\smash{\lower.5\baselineskip\hbox{$\cdots$ complement $\bit#$\hfil}}\cr
1_0\quad \p2_1\quad \p4_0\quad \p6_1\quad \p7_1\quad \p9_0&1\cr
\p1_1\quad 4_0\quad 7_1\quad 8_0\quad 9_0&9\cr
\p1_1\quad 4_0\quad 7_1\quad 8_0\quad \p9_1&8\cr
\p1_1\quad 4_0\quad 7_1\quad \p8_1&7\cr
\qquad\vdots&8\cr
\p1_1\quad \p4_1\quad \p7_1\quad \p8_0\quad 9_1&9\cr
\p1_1\quad \p4_1\quad \p7_1\quad \p8_0\quad \p9_0\cr}}$$
And finally the whole list is asleep; all 60 labelings have been generated.
@ Using the active list protocol, the average amount of work per bit change is
only $O(1)$ when amortized over the entire computation, even if we do a
sequential search for~$k$ in step~(1) and recopy all elements greater than~$k$
in step~(2). Our implementation goes beyond the notion of amortization,
however; after $O(n)$ steps of initialization, the program below does at most
a bounded number of operations between bit changes. Thus it is actually {\it
loopless}, in the sense defined by Gideon Ehrlich [{\sl Journal of the ACM\/
\bf20} (1973), 500--513].
The extra contortions that we need to go through in order to achieve
looplessness are usually ill-advised, because they actually cause the
total execution time to be longer than it would be with a more straightforward
algorithm. But hey, looplessness carries an academic cachet.
So we might as well treat this task as a
challenging exercise that might help us to sharpen our algorithmic wits.
(There may actually be a loopless algorithm for this problem that does not
slow down the total execution time. For example, the loopless implementation
in the program {\mc LI-RUSKEY} is quite fast, but it sometimes needs
$\Omega(n^2)$ steps for initialization and $\Omega(n^2)$ space for tables.
The existence of such a fast implementation suggests that
totally acyclic digraphs might well have additional properties that
yield improvements over the approach taken here; readers are encouraged to
find a better way.)
The first step we shall take toward a loopless algorithm is to introduce
``focus pointers,'' as in Ehrlich's Algorithm 7.2.1.1L. Usually |focus[k]=k|,
except when $k$ is asleep and the successor of~$k$ is awake. In the latter
case, |focus[k]| is the largest $j=
for (k=n;k;k--) {
j=lsib[k];
if (j) left[k]=j, right[j]=k;
else @;
j=umax[k];
if (!j) umaxscope[k]=k;
else umaxscope[k]=(umaxbit[k]==1? (vmax[j]? vmax[j]: j): umaxscope[j]);
j=vmax[k];
if (!j) vmaxscope[k]=k;
else vmaxscope[k]=(vmaxbit[k]==0? (umax[j]? umax[j]: j): vmaxscope[j]);
}
@ @=
for (j=l=k;j;j=right[j]) {
if (right[j] && sign[j]==sign[right[j]] &&@|
((sign[j]==0 && !vmax[j])||(sign[j]==1 && !umax[j]))) continue;
bstart[j]=l, l=right[j];
}
@ @=
int left[maxn], right[maxn]; /* neighbors in the active list */
int bstart[maxn]; /* start of a block */
int umaxscope[maxn], vmaxscope[maxn]; /* extreme nodes when |bit[k]| changes */
int flag[maxn]; /* nonzero when an insertion or deletion is needed */
int focus[maxn]; /* pointers that encode wakefulness */
@ When |bit[k]| changes from 0 to 1, we want to delete $k$'s positive blocks of
children from the active list and insert the negative ones. The rightmost
block is addressed by |rchild[k]|, and we get to the others by following
|bstart| and |lsib| links. Our algorithm is supposed to be loopless, so we
can't do all this updating at once. Therefore we do only the rightmost step,
and we plant a warning in the data structure so that subsequent steps
will be performed before the missing information is needed. All nodes are
awake while waiting to be inserted or deleted, so the focus pointers are
unaffected by these delayed actions.
The |fixup| subroutine is the basic mechanism by which nodes
enter or leave the active list. This subroutine not only inserts
or deletes a block of children, it also inserts a flag so that
the previous block will be fixed in due time.
@=
void fixup(register int k, register int l)
{
register int i,j;
flag[l]=0;
if (k>0) @@;
@;
}
@ Once the process has gotten started, |left[j]| and |right[k]| will
already have the correct values, unchanged from the time block $k$ was
previously deleted. But we don't make use of this fact, because we don't
want to worry about presetting |left[j]| and |right[k]| when the
action list is initialized.
@=
{
j=bstart[k], i=lsib[j];
left[j]=left[l], right[left[l]]=j;
left[l]=k, right[k]=l;
if (i) {
if (sign[k]==1) {
if (sign[i]==0) {
if (vmin[i]=
k=-k, j=bstart[k], i=lsib[j];
if (left[l]!=k)
printf("Oops, fixup(%d,%d) is confused!\n",-k,l); /* can't happen */
if (i && sign[i]!=sign[k]) {
if ((sign[i]==0 && vmax[i]==0) || (sign[i]==1 && umax[i]==0))
@;
}
left[l]=left[j], right[left[j]]=l;
if (i) {
if (sign[k]==0) {
if (sign[i]==1) j=umin[i];
else j=vmin[i], i=-i; /* the next fix will be another deletion */
}@+else {
if (sign[i]==0) j=vmin[i];
else j=umin[i], i=-i; /* the next fix will be another deletion */
}
flag[j]=i;
}
@ @=
{
left[l]=i, right[i]=l;
k=bstart[i], left[k]=left[j], right[left[k]]=k;
i=lsib[k];
if (i) {
if (sign[k]==0) {
if (sign[i]==1) {
if (umin[i]=
setfirst(0); /* compute the initial setting of $|bit|[1]\ldots|bit|[n]$ */
for (l=k=0;k<=n;k++) {
focus[k]=k;
if (sign[k]==bit[par[k]]) right[l]=k, left[k]=l, l=k;
}
right[l]=0, left[0]=l; /* link in the rightmost node of the active list */
@* Doing it. The time has come to construct the loopless implementation in
practice, as we have been doing so far in theory.
Of course the printout in each step does involve a loop. This printout
is suppressed if |verbose<0|.
@=
@;
if (verbose>1) @;
while (1) {
count++;
if (verbose>=0) @;
@;
if (k) {
if (flag[k]) fixup(flag[k],k);
if (bit[k]==0) @@;
else @;
}@+else if (been_there_and_done_that) break;
else {
printf("...%d so far; now we generate in reverse:\n",count);
been_there_and_done_that=1; continue;
}
@;
}
printf("Altogether %d/2 labelings.\n",count);
@ @=
int count; /* the number of labelings found so far */
int been_there_and_done_that; /* have we reached all-asleep state before? */
@ @=
j=left[0], k=focus[j], focus[j]=j;
@ At this point we know that all nodes greater than $k$ are awake and
that |flag[k]=0|.
@=
j=left[k], focus[k]=focus[j], focus[j]=j;
@ @=
{
bit[k]=1, j=rchild[k];
if (j) {
if (sign[j]==0) { /* we want to delete |j=umax[k]| */
l=vmin[j];
if (l=
{
bit[k]=0, j=rchild[k];
if (j) {
if (sign[j]==1) { /* we want to delete |j=vmax[k]| */
l=umin[j];
if (l=
{
for (k=1;k<=n;k++) putchar('0'+bit[k]);
if (verbose>0) @;
putchar('\n');
}
@ Here I recompute what the active list should be, and compare it
to the current links. Discrepancies are noted only if no flagged nodes
follow.
Sleeping nodes are enclosed in parentheses;
an exclamation point is printed before a node that is flagged.
@=
{
for (k=left[0];;k--) {
for (j=k, k=focus[k]; j>k; j--) {
asleep[j]=1;
if (flag[j]) printf("\nOops, flag[%d] is wrong!\n",j);
}
if (k==0) break;
asleep[k]=0;
}
for (k=1,j=0;k<=left[0];k++) if (sign[k]==bit[par[k]]) {
if (asleep[k]) printf(" (%d)",k);
else if (flag[k]) printf(" !%d",k);
else printf(" %d",k);
if ((k!=right[j] || left[k]!=j) && k>l)
printf("[oops]");
j=k;
}
}
@ @=
int asleep[maxn]; /* sleeping (or inactive) nodes */
@ Finally, we print even more stuff when the user calls for an
exceptional level of absolute verbosity.
@=
{
for (k=0;k<=n;k++) {
printf("%d(%c): scope=%d, par=%d, rchild=%d, lsib=%d,",
k, sign[k]? '-': '+', scope[k], par[k], rchild[k], lsib[k]);
printf(" ppro=%d, npro=%d, prev=%d, bstart=%d\n",
ppro[k], npro[k], prev[k], bstart[k]);
printf(" umin=%d, ueven=%d, umax=%d, umaxbit=%d, umaxscope=%d\n",
umin[k], ueven[k], umax[k], umaxbit[k], umaxscope[k]);
printf(" vmin=%d, veven=%d, vmax=%d, vmaxbit=%d, vmaxscope=%d\n",
vmin[k], veven[k], vmax[k], vmaxbit[k], vmaxscope[k]);
}
}
@* Index.